Severe cold fronts put a hold on walleye fishing. The day after a cold front usually has cool temperatures with bright, sunny skies. Walleye will hug the bottom and refuse to feed for up to 3 days following a cold front. Walleye in clear water are affected for longer than walleye in murky water. It might take 3 days for walleye to start feeding in clear water lakes, while walleye in murky rivers will barely be affected. Many walleye fishermen catch fish in murky rivers the next day after a cold front. As a general rule, you need to fish deeper and closer to the bottom after a cold front. Try using live bait with stinger hooks and you will have more success. Lighter line in the 4 to 6 pound test range is recommended in clear water.
Warm fronts can effect walleye in a good or bad way depending on the time of year. When water temperatures are cold in the early spring or late fall, a warm front can help improve the bite. Walleye may still feed during the same peak fishing times, but the bite will usually last longer and the fish may feed more aggressively. You should be able to catch more walleye on crankbaits during this time. A warm front during the middle of the summer will often move walleye into deeper water and the bite becomes more finicky, especially during the day. There will still be some aggressive walleye during the peak fishing times, but your window for catching aggressive fish will be much smaller with water temperatures reaching into the 70s and 80s. Trolling crankbaits can be effective, but most anglers turn to spinner rigs tipped with nightcrawlers, minnows or chubs.